Nanjing: A Walk Along the Watchtowers by Thomas O'Malley

Nanjing city wall

 This article (with pics) was penned for Aspire, the magazine of Hong Kong Airlines. 


Tom O’Malley embarks on an urban hike into the past atop Nanjing’s city walls.

How many bricks does it take to build a wall around a city? This thought nagged at me as I scrambled up the stone steps to Taicheng, a section of weather-worn battlements that still wrap around much of the former Chinese capital of Nanjing.

Popping out on to the crenelated top reveals what must be the most wow view of any city in China. The wall, wide enough for two cars to pass each other, winds away in front and behind like a medieval Mario Kart track. To the north, the glassy expanse of Xuanwu Lake, flanked by willow trees, sparkles in the sun; rising in the east is Purple Mountain, a forested hillock of tombs including those of Sun Yat-sen and the first Ming Emperor; to the south, the seven tapering tiers of a temple pagoda; and to the west, framed against a great curve of the wall, the space-age skyscrapers of modern Nanjing.

About 350 million, by the way. Bricks. That’s according to a small museum I discover inside one of the wall’s restored towers. Equally astonishing is how many of the bricks are inscribed with Chinese characters. These, I’m told, are a maker’s mark, recording the name of the craftsman that made it over six centuries ago. Kilns hundreds of miles away supplied the bricks, and woe betide any that fell short of the required quality. With your signature stamped on it, there could be no excuses for shoddy workmanship.

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From the museum, I hike along the Wall for about a mile northwest, skirting the shoreline of the lake, until I reach the Xuanwu Gate, a decorative addition from the Qing Dynasty allowing traffic to pass from the old city to the lakeshore below. From here you get a sense of another feature of the Nanjing Wall – it’s irregularity. The wall traces the city’s natural contours, skirting around the lake and utilizing natural defensive features like river channels and Purple Mountain. It seems an almost organic component of Nanjing’s urban landscape.

But what’s most remarkable is that the walls are still here in the first place. Despite demolition work in the 1960s, two thirds of the 32km-long structure remain, which is more than can be said for poor old Beijing. In the same decade, Chairman Mao presided over the wholesale demolition of Beijing’s walls to make way for a ring road and subway line. As the capital, Beijing had to be shown to be modern, efficient and forward-thinking. In Nanjing, parts of the old wall were torn down to make way for roads and buildings, but the rest was left to fend for itself against time, weather and brick thieves.

Fortunately for Nanjing, the first Ming Emperor was a stickler for quality. Zhu Yuanzhang saw off the Mongols and declared Nanjing the capital of China in 1368, under the new stewardship of the Ming. Pretty much straight away he got busy constructing the city wall atop remnants of wall from older dynasties. It took 20,000 workers 20 years to complete.

All those signed bricks were held together by an innovative mortar of lime and glutinous rice, which helped preserve the remaining Nanjing walls well enough so that it was decided, in the 1980s, that they should be looked after a little better. From then on, restoration occurred a bit at a time – a gate here, a few metres there. Several years ago previously unrestored sections were spruced up, cleared of vegetation and opened to the public in time for the 2014 Youth Olympic Games. Today, over 12 kilometres of broad, weather-worn walkways await the wall-walker, while many of the demolished sections are marked by connecting urban parkways or walking routes. 

“In the early twentieth century, major Chinese cities like Guangzhou, Shanghai, Wuhan and Changsha all had their walls knocked down as they modernized, but Nanjing was lucky.” Liu Bin is a Researcher at the Nanjing City Wall Museum, and full of facts about what he sees as Nanjing’s unique cultural treasure. “Most people don’t know that not only is Nanjing’s city wall one of the longest in the world, it’s moat is too,” says Liu Bin, explaining that it cleverly incorporates two lakes and rivers in its design. 

Not all of Nanjing’s ancient structures have fared so well, however. Heading south, I discover very little left of Emperor Zhu’s palace, Nanjing’s own ‘Forbidden City’ built by Zhu in the 14th century. Left to ruin over the centuries, a few broken stone gates and column bases are all that remain, set inside a quiet park close to the Zhongshan Gate, another traffic portal hewn into the city wall. From here I hike a further mile or so south along the battlements to the wall’s south-eastern corner, taking in the sheer scale of urban Nanjing along the way.

Without doubt the single most impressive feature of Nanjing’s walls greets me when I reach the narrow Qinhuai River. The Zhonghua Gate, or ‘Gate of the Nation’ as it was whimsically renamed by Chinese Nationalist Leader Chiang Kai-shek, is a Ming Dynasty fortress gate guarding the ‘front door’ of Nanjing. It looks like a castle, and anyone coming into the city would have had to pass through a series of connecting courtyards overlooked by deadly firing positions, described by one observer as like “catching turtles in a jar.”

In fact, the Zhonghua Gate together with Nanjing’s walls were pressed into service once again in 1937 during the war with the Japanese. The walls were studded with machine-gun placements, ready to defend against the coming Japanese army, who had just taken Shanghai, and they proved a formidable barrier for their better trained and equipped opponents. But as history has proven, the Japanese forces eventually smashed through and what happened next – the Nanjing massacre - is considered one of the darkest episodes in the country’s recent history.

But fortunately, the future for Nanjing’s wall is bright. For 2018, the Municipal Government have announced plans to continue with various restoration projects, including cleaning up the moat, planting more trees alongside the wall, and adding more lighting along its length. Then, explains Liu Bin, they will apply to UNESCO for World Cultural Heritage status.

“Nanjing is one of the four ancient capitals of China with a history of over 3,000 years. We need to remember that history is one of our most important resources, and we must work to keep a memory of our history and culture, and also improve the whole city and make it more attractive.”

During China’s breakneck development in the last few decades, heritage has undoubtedly been an area that has suffered. Wholesale modernisation has meant the tearing down of old neighbourhoods and defunct relics like city walls. Only with time and reflection are people now taking stock and looking back with some regret on the decisions that were made.

And so, appropriately, the last word must go to another Chinese city, 1,300 miles to the north – Datong. Like many others, its walls were lost to time, decay and demolition during the twentieth century. But thanks to the work of an unusually impassioned and motivated mayor, Geng Yanbo (known, somewhat affectionately, as ‘Demolition Geng’), Datong now has an almost complete set of city walls once again. Built from scratch at great expense, and forcing the displacement of thousands of city residents, it was a controversial project designed to ignite tourism in this dusty coal-mining city. Questions have also been raised about its clear lack of historical accuracy (UNESCO status is out of the question), but the Datong walls have drawn great praise from locals and visitors, are a boon to tourism, and lit up at night really are are a sight to behold.

Whether “Demolition Geng” has ushered in a new era of Chinese wall building remains to be seen, but in a strange twist it does go to show that city walls still have a value in modern society – not for defence, of course – but for leisure, and winning hearts and minds.

WHERE TO STAY:

The Grand Mansion, A Luxury Collection Hotel

This newly-built palace of hospitality boasts beautifully-appointed guest rooms and a commanding location overlooking the Presidential Palace, with many of the city’s best central sights within walking distance.

InterContinental Nanjing

Occupying the uppermost floors of the 450-metre tall Zifeng Tower, the InterCon has been the city’s most glamorous hotel since it opened in 2010. Tastefully decked out rooms come with panoramic views as standard, while Prime Bar on top is a great spot for classy cocktails and juicy steaks.

WHAT TO EAT:

Dapaidang (Nanjing Impressions)

Nanjing’s most popular traditional restaurant chain, Dapaidang is the place to come for traditional ‘Nanjing salt duck’, marinated in a salt, spice and osmanthus brine, as well as delectable soy sauce noodles and other treats.

Loamendong

This restored historic neighbourhood backs on to the southern-most stretch of the city wall, and offers a number of traditional vendors selling hearty beef dumplings, freshly roasted Nanjing duck and duck fat ‘shaobing’ bread.

See more of my Nanjing photos here

Instagrams from the road by Thomas O'Malley

Testing out the Squarespace social media embed function with this self-updating Instagram feed. That's all, folks. <3

Innovation Nation: China's Return to the Top by Thomas O'Malley

I wrote this China fluff feature for the Johnnie Walker House Edit

When the Qianlong emperor received George Macartney, Britain’s first envoy to China, in Chengde in 1793, he made it quite clear what he thought about trading goods and ideas with Britain:

Our Celestial Empire possesses all things in prolific abundance and lacks no product within its borders. There is therefore no need to import the manufactures of outside barbarians in exchange for our own produce.” 

For a nation that had given the world paper, printing, gunpowder, and the compass, and could boast an illustrious civilization stretching back millennia, Qianlong had justification to be dismissive of the European advances.

But had he taken a different tack, the next couple of centuries might have panned out differently for China. Unknown to the Son of Heaven, 8,000km away in England, vast new factories were employing power looms and moving from water mills to steam engines. Production soared; iron-making technology leapt forward. The Industrial Revolution forged ahead at full steam, its technological benefits affecting every aspect of society and reverberating throughout Europe and later the US. China, meanwhile, stood still. It’s economy declined in the final years of the Qing Dynasty. And so followed protracted decades of war, hardship and upheaval. 

After a lengthy slumber, the mighty dragon awoke, nurtured back to prosperity by the economic reforms of Deng Xiaoping in the 1980s. State industries were privatized, competition flourished, and entrepreneurs were given official permission to start businesses. From 1978 to 2013, the Chinese economy grew by almost 10 percent a year.

For years, ‘Made in China’ and ‘Factory Asia’ became the primary driver of growth, as the world’s most populous country become the world’s manufacturing powerhouse, leveraging its size and low labor costs. But as China’s economy enters a ‘new normal’, from hyper growth to high growth, and with a rapidly expanding middle class, the world is starting to witness the shift from ‘Made in China’ to ‘Created in China’. This is the bold new era of the innovative, responsive Chinese company.

China as Global Innovator

 “You should learn from your competitor but never copy. Copy, and you die.”

The words of Jack Ma, a figure of the stature of Steve Jobs or Mark Zuckerburg in China, and the founder of Alibaba Group, the world’s largest e-commerce company. The first mainland Chinese entrepreneur to make the cover of Forbes, Ma has given the world a suite of wildly successful web businesses including Taobao, China’s eBay (but more expansive in its offerings), a site that accounted for 80 percent of the country’s online commerce in 2014.

The secret to Ma’s success, in the man’s own words, is putting the customer first. “I’m not a tech guy,” he has admitted. “I’m looking at it with the eyes of my customers – normal people’s eyes.” It’s precisely by responding to the evolving demands of China’s enormous customer base that has propelled so rapidly the growth of tech companies like Alibaba.

Alibaba unveiled Taobao in 2003, the same year that another Chinese tech company, Tencent, launched its QQ chat platform. But it was Weixin (Wechat in English), a smartphone chat app and digital wallet with a suite of Facebook-style features, that really sent Tencent into the stratosphere. As of the first quarter 2016, Wechat broke the 700 million user mark.

China’s breakneck development has occurred in parallel with the rapid rise and widespread adoption of the smartphone, meaning an entire generation leapfrogged home PC ownership. Emails and SMS messaging never fully caught on, allowing chat apps like Wechat to seize the opportunity. Wechat, and Alibaba’s Alipay, allow users unprecedented levels of functionality. Both apps are tied seamlessly with bank accounts, letting users do everything from buying dinner in restaurants to taking taxis or paying utility bills.  

Dual Track Innovation

Of course, innovation flows down as well as up. The Chinese government has been busy re-wiring the very fabric of the country for the twenty-first century, in every field from telecoms to travel. In less than a decade, thanks to colossal government investment, China has built the world’s largest high-speed rail network, connecting city’s across the country.

Meanwhile in the private sector, a more traditional form of transport is making a high-tech comeback. MoBike is a new start-up, backed in part by Tencent and the brainchild of Wang Xiaofeng, previously head of Uber in Shanghai. It represents the apex of China’s recent innovations in the realms of e-commerce and mobile technology.

In contrast to traditional urban bike-sharing programs, MoBike bicycles don’t need docking stations or a registration process; all that is required is a smartphone. The tech-loaded bikes use a QR scanner to be unlocked and so can be parked anywhere, and located via GPS within the app. The scheme has already taken Shanghai and Beijing by storm since it launched in June 2016, with thousands of the distinctive silver and orange bikes already visible on the road.

"The MoBike model,” explained Gao Fan, an associate professor of economics at Shanghai’s Fudan University talking with China Daily, “is not a result of rational planning by the government, but a product of the innovative private sector." More broadly, it goes to show how willing China is to widely and quickly adopt new ideas and systems, to everyone’s benefit. 

Seeking Soft Power

In October 2016, Alibaba branched out into the movie business, teaming up with Steven Spielberg’s Amblin Partners (previously DreamWorks). Chinese box-office sales are no. 2 globally behind the U.S, and Hollywood is desperate to carve out a share of the pie. Equally, China craves the kind of soft power that the global reach of Hollywood has given the U.S. for so long. This is why, increasingly, Hollywood blockbusters are Chinese co-productions, and stars with global appeal like Matt Damon are heading big budget Chinese epics like 2016’s The Great Wall.

Another Chinese company, Dalian Wanda Group, owned by Wang Jianlin, reportedly China’s richest entrepreneur, has already made great strides in the movie business, acquiring US theatre companies AMC and Legendary Entertainment. But that’s not enough for Wanda. Another target in their sights is the expanding service sector – specifically the global luxury hotel market. In September 2016, after just four years, the group opened its one hundredth hotel.

“For Wanda Hotels & Resorts, our company vision is to become a respected international luxury hotel company from China,” explained Ken Zhu, Executive Vice President of the group. For Ken, building Chinese brands that can stand toe-to-toe with the best in the world is the next logical step in China’s development.

“I believe that in a few years, with our overseas properties opening in the Gold Coast, Sydney, Chicago, London and Los Angeles, we will achieve our vision, while guests from around the world see a respected luxury hotel brand from China.”

Innovation Future

China is sending rovers to the moon, spreading its cultural and economic influence globally, investing in new-energy vehicles (NEVs) on its roads and developing brands that are starting to make the world sit up and take serious notice. But what, if anything, can shackle the rise of the dragon as it soars up the value chain?

Political and environmental issues and volatile stock markets remain ever-present concerns, of course, but for China to realize its growth potential in the next ten years, research by Research by McKinsey Global Institute suggests that two to three percentage points of its annual GDP growth will need to come from innovation, amounting to trillions of dollars.

To this end, the government is pumping serious cash into R&D and more recently, innovation and entrepreneurship education, laying the platform for China’s next Jack Ma. Integrated enterprise ecosystems are in place to nurture hi-tech development, from Beijing’s Zhongguancun with over 20,000 companies to Shenzhen in the south, until recently a fishing village and now home to domestic tech giants like Huawei. And that’s not to mention over a million science graduates coming through China’s increasingly well-regarded university system every year.

Taken together, the prospects looks bright for China. If the Qianlong emperor was around today, he’d surely have to agree. The “Celestial Empire” he presided over is strong once again, and getting stronger.

Korean Air: A Thousand Tiny Paper Cuts by Thomas O'Malley

I wrote the cover story for the May 2017 edition of Morning Calm, the inflight mag of Korean Air. 

Korean Air feature

The art of jianzhi, or paper-cutting, has been a fixture of Chinese life for centuries. Regionally diverse in style, form and function, it can be both popular folk craft and high culture.

Two millennia ago, China was ruled by the Han Dynasty, a golden age in the epic history of the Middle Kingdom. While the Roman Empire was busy conquering the tribes of Europe, thousands of miles away, a Chinese court eunuch named Cai Lun, serving under Emperor He, was writing official inscriptions on bamboo tablets and pieces of silk. These materials were costly, weighty, and inconvenient, however, so Cai, an enterprising man, experimented with making a writing material by suspending tree bark, bits of hemp, and other odds and ends in water, which he then dried into thin sheets. Though his exact formula has been lost to history, he had invented paper. It would be a thousand years, over which time the Roman Empire would vanish and others would rise to take its place, before the secret of paper finally found its way to Europe.

This historical context is key, because we can assume that the art of paper-cutting followed not long after the invention of paper. Very few ancient pieces of paper-cutting survive. The earliest known example is believed to come from the Six Dynasties period (222-589 AD), found buried in the bone dry sands of what is today Xinjiang Province in China’s far west, along the ancient Silk Road.

What’s wonderful about this find is its simplicity – a folded, symmetrical paper floral motif of much the same type that adorns windows and doors in China today. Thanks to this discovery, we know for certain that the art of jianzhi has a history spanning at least 1,500 years.

“Paper-cutting in China is for everyone, it represents their needs and aspirations, or simply just comforts the soul.” The words of Zhang Fanglin, a fourth generation paper-cut artist from Nanjing, a city on the south bank of the mighty Yangtze River.

Zhang explains how for centuries paper-cut art permeated every aspect of Chinese peasant life – weddings, childbirth, harvest, birthdays, Chinese New Year. As an art form it is transitory by design, often displayed in the open air and lasting only until the spring rains. At funerals it is burned or buried with the dead. Almost exclusively red, these folk images, such as a carp leaping over a dragon gate or goldfish among lotus flowers, symbolized good fortune and happiness, and were affixed to windows (also made of paper) and entranceways. Most common of all were - and still are - the Chinese characters fu (lucky) and xi (double happiness). Shou, meaning longevity, is used for birthdays of senior citizens.

“In the northern regions, paper-cutting was a folk art, created during the slack farming season, with bold, simple motifs of peasant themes, made mostly by women and passed down on the female side,” says Zhang. “But in the south, during the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644), the art-form evolved to new heights of refinement.”  Of which Master Zhang is a progeny.

Encircled by the remains of one of the largest city walls in the world, Nanjing was the birthplace of the Ming Dynasty. Within its stone battlements, Chinese arts attained new aesthetic heights before the capital decamped north to Beijing. One of these was silk brocade weaving, where garments were embroidered with intricately complex patterns rich with imperial symbolism, crafted exclusively for the Chinese imperial family.

Closely related to silk brocade was paper-cutting, another art-form that peaked in the Yangtze River region during the reign of the Ming. The intricate techniques of paper-cutting were also used for embroidery pattern design, and it became known as the Jiangnan School (meaning 'south of the Yangtze') with Nanjing and nearby Yangzhou at its heart.

Today, Zhang’s studio is based in a white-walled, 300-year-old mansion complex in the heart of the city. The former residence of a noble Qing Dynasty family, it’s one of the few complexes of its kind, whimsically known as “99 and a half rooms” for its scale and majesty, to have survived the 20th century modernization of the city. Appropriate, then, that it preserves the ancient art of paper-cutting within what is now the Nanjing Folk Museum.

“Here in the south,” explains Zhang, “paper-cutting was based on a rich embroidery style, with smooth, exquisite line work. It was the preserve of male artisans, who would master the form over the course of their lives.”

Zhang shows us his art pieces, impossibly delicate with filigree line work revealing leaves, flowers and auspicious symbols. Many are perfectly symmetrical, showing repeating images like fish following face to fin, or exquisitely rendered zodiac animals encircled by rural motifs.

Zhang is the fourth generation of paper-cutters in his family, a line that stretches back more than a hundred years. “My works represent the culmination of decades of effort,” says Zhang, who believes that each generation builds on what has come before, evolving and moving the art-form forwards a little each time.

But Zhang’s own artistic journey was nearly derailed by the political upheavals of China in the latter half of the 20th century. He first started to dabble with paper-cutting at age seven under the stewardship of his father, and at 14 he entered the Nanjing Folk Art Factory to study paper-cutting formally. The year was 1963. Zhang graduated three years later, the same year that marked the beginning of the Cultural Revolution.

Part of Chairman Mao’s Cultural Revolution was a campaign aimed to destroy the “Four Olds”: old customs, culture, habits and ideas. Deemed a traditional, bourgeois pursuit, paper-cutting was banned. The Nanjing Art Institute, where Zhang hoped to complete his studies, was closed. His dream looked hopeless.

“Where could I go to learn? I had few options. It took great effort, but I managed to get hold of a few pamphlets from the former Soviet Union about sketching and oil painting, and these became my teachers. I copied them over and over, but failed to grasp the essence of them. I was going nowhere.”

In 1970, the Worker’s Cultural Palace in Nanjing started to offer amateur art classes, and Zhang enrolled. Freezing in winter and stifling hot in summer, nevertheless Zhang attended classes every single day after his work finished. But by the the time the Cultural Revolution came to an end in the mid 1970s, Zhang found he was too old to take the entrance exam for the Nanjing Art Institute. “I was heartbroken, but I realized there is more than one road to success. And my road would be hard work.”

Over the next forty years, Zhang dedicated his life to his craft. It was a tough road, but he was buoyed by the words of his father from years before. “When we cut the shepherd boy and cattle, it’s not about simply showing the detail in the cow’s hair - we must really care about the emotions between the two.” Since China’s reform and opening up in the 1980s, these words have helped guide Zhang through a career in which he has achieved national recognition and success, travelling around the world with his scissors to give classes and exhibitions, and spread jianzhi far and wide.

Today, paper-cutting is supported in China by both the government and private enterprises. Inscribed in 2009 on the Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity by UNESCO, it is growing in stature both at home and abroad.

A thousand kilometers north of Nanjing, a very different school of jianzhi blossomed in the Hebei countryside, in a county called Yuxian well beyond the mountains that guard Beijing’s western perimeter. A garrison town in the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644), Yuxian was charged with protecting Beijing’s western flank from Mongol invasion. It was around this time that the ‘Yuxian’ style of paper-cutting began to flourish.

It’s fitting that it was here, in the heart of China’s arid North Plain, a region where the color washes from the landscape every winter, that a uniquely vivid school of paper-cutting was born. The Yuxian style employs ink pigments and a dyeing process after cutting to produce its colorful works, chiefly based around characters and masks from Chinese opera, harvest images, flowers, auspicious animals and themes of happiness and longevity. 

The avuncular Gao Dianliang, a dusting of white on his hair, welcomes us into his studio with a generous smile. His plain navy jacket contrasts with his technicolor art pieces, drawing on different Chinese art styles like silk painting, lacquer ware, and oil painting.

Gao was a boy of six when he first picked up a knife. Since then, he’s evolved a unique style that he believes is spiritual as well as practical, informed by the philosophies of Taoism.

“Yuxian style is the only form of paper-cutting that combines both yin carving and yang carving together,” says Gao, as he works. Yang carving, he explains, is where the central portions of the image are cut away to reveal just its delicate outline. Conversely, yin is the opposite. The fine lines of an image are cut to let the central shapes remain, giving the image the essence of realism. A little like the difference between a photograph and its negative.

And the cutting, explains Gao, is only part of a long and complex process. “A good knife technique is essential, but then there is painting, engraving, dying, stippling and pointillism. The techniques to master are many.”

In contrast to the scissors used in the Jiangnan School, Gao works with a set of small, razor-sharp carving knives on several sheets of ‘xuan’ paper, a high quality calligraphy paper from Xuancheng in Anhui Province. Once the cutting is complete, he moves on to the coloring process, then mounting. He must also sketch, inscribe, draw and paint.

Despite the differences between the Yuxian and Jiangnan schools of jianzhi, Gao echoes the words of Zhang when explaining how he insists on looking for artistic inspiration in nature before he starts a new work. “I go outside, observe nature and try to see its subtleties, experience it, think and learn from it.”

Inspiration also comes from other traditional Chinese art forms, such as ink painting, woodblock printing and fabric dyeing. In this way, Gao sees his works as the culmination of a deep well of cultural processes, disciplines and learned wisdom in China. The poet, the painter, the sculptor, the printer, the calligrapher. The spirit of all these artisans through the dynasties are present, tangibly or otherwise, in his finished pieces.

Receiving national support is something that Gao values deeply, and why he believes the future is bright for paper-cutting. When he started, a piece of jianzhi sold for just one fen in his home village. Then, moving to Beijing as a young artist, he discovered he could sell a piece for two yuan, twenty times the price.

Along with other master craftspeople engaged in everything from traditional Suzhou embroidery to to silk screen painting, Gao’s studio is located at Beijing’s new Intangible Cultural Heritage Center, a cultural incubator located on a recently renovated street south of Tiananmen Square. A mix of private and public investment of around CNY 25 billion (USD 4 billion) has brought this impressive new complex to life, hoping to do for ancient Chinese folk culture what California’s Silicon Valley has done for tech. As well as incubating and nurturing small businesses engaged in traditional cultural enterprises, it is set up to host expos, trade fairs, auctions, and be a hub for tourists, as well as spreading China’s folk art soft power around the world.

Qiao Xiaoguang, another Hebei artist based at the Intangible Cultural Heritage Center, created ‘City Windows’ in 2015 at the Chicago O’Hare airport in the US, transforming fifteen window panels into scenes of Chicago and Beijing. Xin Song, a female jianzhi artist from Beijing, created paper-cut installations at New York Grand Central Terminal in 2013 to celebrate its 100th anniversary. Born in 1970, her recent works have used paper from magazine pages to make a comment on hyper-consumerism in contemporary China.

As Gao says, it’s vital that jianzhi keeps evolving and spreading. In his own way, he has worked to improve the physical longevity of his work through the use of new mineral color pigments that don’t lose their luster over time, and the introduction of longer-lasting foil paper. It’s this sense of carrying something forwards for future generations, and making an artistic legacy that lasts the test of time, that is all-important for Gao.

“Craftsmen like me don’t just do it for fun, it’s more than a hobby or a profession. We use our whole lives and all our energy to carry this folk art forwards. Chinese paper-cutting comes from life, from the people. Nothing makes me happier than helping the world understand more about the culture of China.”

Morning Calm cover

Pearl of the Andaman Sea: 10 Phuket Highlights by Thomas O'Malley

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This piece was originally written for the good folks at Interval World magazine. 

Sand, Sea and Sun

It’s no secret - Phuket has some of the most beautiful beaches in Thailand. Anything goes in Patong, Phuket’s party capital that juts up against a fabulous crescent of white sand. The beach here is packed with sizzling sunbathers, and you’re never more than a few feet from a tropical cocktail (or a souvenir seller). For something more pristine, in-the-know travellers seek out compact and quiet Kata Noi beach, with its turquoise waters and coral sand. For beach life with a side serving of glamour, Nai Harn beach in Rawai is where the beautiful people strut their stuff. The Nai Harn, an exclusive resort hotel, overlooks the postcard-perfect bay - treat yourself to a sundowner drink at one of its trio of bars.

Explore Phuket Old Town

Before tourism, it was tin that lured foreign visitors and their money to Phuket. Traders from China, the Middle East and Europe transformed the island capital into a melting pot of cultures, and today Phuket Town still retains its old colonial soul. A stroll through the Old Town reveals pockets of fine Sino-Portuguese architecture, much of it rapidly gentrifying into hip cafes and galleries. History buffs won’t want to miss the well-preserved Chyn Pracha House, a century-old mansion turned museum built by former tin barons when the island was a centre of the trade, or the Standard Chartered Bank building, Thailand’s oldest foreign bank.

See the Sunset at Laem Phromthep

It’s said you haven’t been to Phuket unless you’ve watched the sun dip into the Andaman Sea from the island’s southern tip. Yes, Laem Phromthep is a tourist cliché, but a gorgeous one. If the clouds roll in and spoil the show, a shrine by the car park has a quirky collection of elephant sculptures on display, and there are plenty of souvenir sellers and snack stalls to browse. To bypass the crowds, you can hike a slippery path to the rocky limit of the cape, where you’ll have the vistas all to yourself.

Go Island Hopping

At 222 square miles in size, Phuket isn’t exactly petite, and its close proximity to the mainland makes it one of the few Thai islands without the prefix ‘ko’. If you’re craving somewhere smaller and more secluded, the good news is Phuket is one of the best embarkation points to reach some of Thailand’s most paradisiac ko. Ko Pi Pi (from movie The Beach fame) takes 2-3 hours by ferry to traverse the 53km of ocean (or faster if using a speedboat service), and makes for a delightful day trip. A similar distance away, Ko Khao Phing Kan, also known as ‘James Bond Island’ for its role in 1974’s The Man With The Golden Gun, is famous for its striking limestone tower karsts. Kayak tours let you get up close and personal with these 20m high natural towers, standing like sentries in the azure water. 

Buddy Up With Buddha

For those in search of spiritual enlightenment, or just a break from the beach, there are around thirty Buddhist temples, known as wat, scattered across Phuket. One of the oldest is Wat Phra Thong, whose main attraction is a strange, half-buried Buddha statue poking up from a temple hall. Not too far away is Wat Srisoonthorn, immediately recognisable due to its 29-metre high sleeping Buddha kicking back in all his golden glory atop the wat’s main hall. But if size really is everything, there’s only one contender on Phuket –Big Buddha, the island’s most important spiritual landmark, built in 2007 at enormous cost. Gazing out serenely from the Nakkerd Hills, the 45-metre tall statue is a must-see (and to be fair, you can see it from miles around). A stairway lined with bells and prayer flags leads up to the base of the statue, rewarding visitors with some of the island’s most expansive views.

Gender-Bending Family Fun in Patong

Despite what you might think, the Simon Star Cabaret, sometimes known as Patong’s ‘lady boy show’, really is pantomime fun for all the family. Admittedly cabaret isn’t everyone’s cup of tea, but the exuberant costumes, ambitious dance ensembles and Vegas-inspired razzle-dazzle make for an impressive spectacle, and best of all the show is funny throughout. A hit with the mushrooming numbers of Chinese tourists, the show has opened up new branches across the island. After the show guests are invited to take their photographs with the performers in all their finery, but expect to pay extra for the privilege.

Master the Thai Culinary Arts

Phuket cuisine is a delicious marriage of Thai cooking with Chinese and Malay influences, thanks to the island’s longstanding role as a trading centre in Asia. To really get to grips with the local food, like creating curry pastes from scratch or practising everyone’s favourite streetfood standby the pad Thai, make a visit to one of the many cooking schools on the island. Most offer take half-day or day classes, but longer courses are available for budding master chefs. The Kata School earns plaudits for the quality of its teachers and the addition of a local market tour helping you get to grips with the dazzling array of ingredients on offer.

Tour Phuket’s Artisanal Rum Distillery

The Chalong Bay Rum Distillery was started by a French couple living on Phuket, and their boozy creations are now making waves on the global craft liquor scene. The best thing about the 30-minute distillery tour is the delicious mojito cocktail at the end – made with their impressive cane sugar rum, naturally. There’s also the chance to take part in a cocktail workshop in the bar and learn a few recipes and techniques.

Graze at Phuket’s Premier Night Market

A great place to snack and shop, this popular market, known as Naka by the locals, is a little way outside Phuket Town. You can munch on a wide range of local bites (try the khao niao mamuang - mango with sticky rice) as well as more esoteric global snacks like Japanese sushi shaped like Angry Birds characters. There’s also plenty of cheap and cheerful shopping on offer too, from mobile phone cases to handbags and jewelry. But be prepared to bargain hard!

Bar Crawl along Bangla Road

At night, Bangla Road, running inland from Patong Beach, is closed to cars and open for grown-up fun until the early hours. Nowhere does nightlife quite like Thailand – neon bars with cheap beer and loud music, packed nightclubs, questionable ‘shows’ - but even the more salubrious streets are imbued with the trademark friendly Thai vibe, so you always feel safe. Take your pick from any number of busy bars and clubs along this strip, or just find a table, order a drink and watch the weird and wonderful world go by.